MBE Components, Valved Mercury Evaporation Source HGS


Valved Mercury Evaporation Source


HGS 63-250
HGS 63-250 valved mercury evaporation source on DN63 CF (O.D. 4.5") mounting flange with 250 cm³ evaporator reservoir
  • High throughput of up to 60g Hg/h

  • Large capacity 250 cm3 evaporator

  • 3000 cm3 (40kg Hg) equalizing tank

  • Larger capacity on request

  • Easy and safe refilling procedure

  • Compatible with most MBE systems

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The Valved Mercury (Hg) Evaporation Source HGS is designed for evaporation of elemental mercury in standard UHV or MBE systems. The source consists of the 250 cm3 evaporator, heated by a thermostat, the heated valve and the heated injector unit which acts as the interface to the UHV system. Both components valve and injector are heated independently to avoid material condensation.

The source provides precise flux stability of better ± 0.1% by ± 0.03K temperature control of the evaporator reservoir using external heating. Precise longterm flux stability is achieved up to very high flux rates by a liquid level stabilization using an external equalizing tank.The evaporator reservoir is connected to the external tank which allows continuous hydrostatic refill of the evaporator reservoir in order to keep the liquid level within the evaporator constant.

The integrated pneumatic all metal valve allows rapid on/off switching of the Hg beam.

Mounted HGS source
HGS 63-250 source mounted to UHV chamber

Easy and safe refilling is provided by an additional container which is mounted to the equalizing tank and which can be filled from air side.

The vacuum tight pneumatic valve allows venting the MBE system without breaking the vacuum inside the HGS evaporator.

The mercury source HGS has been developed in cooperation and is built under license of University of Würzburg (Germany) and with the advice of Dr. C.R. Becker from the University of Würzburg.

Equalizing tank
Equalizing tank with level control viewport



Most applications in II-VI Hg MBE need a high throughput of up to 10-30 g Hg/h for optimum growth conditions. With its large equalizing tank of 3000 cm³ (40 kg Hg) the HGS guarantees stable flux conditions and suitable loads for a growth campaign.

Typical applications for the HGS are:

  • II-VI Hg MBE, e.g. growth of Hg based compounds and heterostructures

  • production of MCT devices, e.g Hg1-xCdxTe infrared photodiods

Schematic drawing HGS

1. Injector tube

2. Cell flange

3. All-metal valve

4. Evaporator  reservoir

5. Equalizing tank


Technical data

Filament type 3 separate heater-circuits (thermostat, valve & injector)
Thermocouple 2x type K Chromel/Alumel (injector/valve); 1x PT100 (reservoir)
Operating temperature injector: 210°C; valve: 230°C; reservoir: 180°C
Outgassing temperature injector: 250°C; valve: 230°C; reservoir: 180°C
Bakeout temperature 250°C
Evaporator reservoir
250 cm³
Flux control integrated valve unit
Valve control pneumatic operation, manual and remote control with TTL signal


Specific data

For general information on CF mounting flanges see Flange and Gasket dimensions.

[cm3] [mm] / [mm] [W] / [A] Product code
HGS 63* - 250**- LxxxD36  2300 / 10 HGSU control unit
* other mounting flange diameters on request
** heated reservoir capacity (equalizing tank 3000 cm3)
*** specify UHV length L with order


Product code:

e.g. HGS 63-250-L300D36

is a valved mercury evaporation source on DN63 CF flange with 250cm³ evaporator reservoir and UHV-length 300mm.