Thin Film / CIGS / CZTS / CdTe, Production Scale Valved Selenium and Sulfur Sources


Production Scale Valved Selenium and Sulfur Source


PVSS 320-9600
PVSS 320-9600 for industrial applications
  • Reservoir Volume 9600 cm³, larger volume on request

  • Pneumatically actuated normally closed valve

  • Easy refill

  • Optimized for fast maintenance

  • Robust heater design

  • Water-cooled assembly

  • Option for carrier gas version


The PVSS is a valved selenium / sulfur source, which is employed in high efficiency CIGS and CIS solar cell production.

Se or S vapor pressure is generated in a heated large capacity glass crucible. The heaters are positioned in the isolation vacuum surrounding the crucible, valve and tubes. The outlet of the valve opens into a customized injector. The isolation vacuum of the source is separated from the process chamber. The outer walls of the reservoir are water cooled.
The valve arrangement is robust and eliminates the risk of locking, which is a frequently observed problem with needle valves.

We offer customized heated gas distribution systems on request.

For more details on the smaller R&D type valved sources see VSCS.



The large versions of the PVSS( valved S / Se Source) can be applied in controlled evaporation of Se / S for the following applications:

  • large scale II-VI semiconductor device fabrication
  • thin film CIGS or CIS solar cell manufacturing
  • sulfurization and selenization processes (including post-growth annealing under process gas) with or without carrier gas

MBE-Komponenten provides support in the design of research or production systems in order to achieve a customized source geometry, optimized for a specified layer uniformity and highly efficient deposition material usage.


Technical data

Model PVSS 320-9600
Operation temperature max. 350°C
Valve Pneumatic, normally closed
crucible volume 9600 cm³
Glass liner option 1000 cm³/usable half-sphere
Crucible heater 1550 W
Top heater 1320 W
Valve and tube heater 820 W
Power supply 400 V, 16 A; 50 Hz; 3 Phases
Compressed air 8 - 10 bar
Isolation vacuum < 3 mbar
Cooling water pressure 2,5 bar
Water flow rate 2,2 l/min