Doping Application

Doping Application Guide


General Information

Doping applications in Molecular Beam Epitaxy generally require low flux rates together with low quantities of dopant materials. A typical doping flux is about 3 to 5 orders of magnitude smaller than typical growth material flux.

Therefore doping cells can be built much more compact, resulting in a lower power consumption compared to standard effusion cells. Low thermal pollution of the MBE system and stable, reproducible temperature control is achieved even at high operation temperatures.

The compact cell design - a key performance provided by MBE Komponenten GmbH - makes our multi material clusters ideally qualified for MBE doping applications. See an example in the picture. A large area uniformity of the doping level on your substrate is obtained by using conically shaped crucibles. With a tapering angle of 10°, doping uniformity of about 1% is reached on a 3" substrate at a distance of 150 mm.


images/applications/doping_100.jpg Compact design of our effusion cells; view onto a double doping cluster source for Si and Be, on a single DN63 CF (O.D. 4.5") flange, with two cell shutters and water cooling between the cells.


Doping Source Selection

The following table wants to be a selection guide for our customers to find the suitable MBE source for various doping applications. Please contact us for assistance with special doping requirements. Our MBE specialists will find the optimal solution for your application.


Select doping cell by dopant material:

Bulkmaterial Dopant Type Source Comment
GaAs / AlGaAs Si n DEZ
Si n SUSI-D high mobility doping, fast switching
Te n DEZ GaTe source material, T=700°C -> 1019cm3 
Be p DEZ
C p SUKO-D high mobility p-type doping
Si / SiGe Sb n DEZ segregation effect
As n DEZ high segregation effect in MBE
P n DECO-D GaP source material, T=700°C -> 1019cm3
B p EBVV-B extremely high Boron doping levels
Ga p DEZ
Al p DEZ segregates in MBE
Er opt. DEZ used for light emission
GaN / GaInN Si n DEZ
Si n SUSI long filament lifetime / Si flux option
Mg p DEZ
Zn p DEZ high activation energy
GaP / GaAsP S n OME, valved source  please contact us
Te n DEZ use GaTe as source material
Zn p DEZ
SiC N n plasma source please contact us
Al p DEZ
N p plasma source please contact us
ZnSe I n valved source valved source / please contact us
ZnCl2 n gas injector valved source / please contact us
N p plasma source please contact us
CdTe Al n DEZ
Cu p DEZ
Sb p DEZ
Other Fe HTEZ


Other highly specialized effusion cells for high vapour pressure materials (even organic materials) are available on request.