../selection-guide/vapor-pressure.php

Vapor pressure data


The following table contains general recommendations of suitable crucible/source combinations for the most commonly used evaporation materials. These recommendations base on scientific knowledge partly verified and amended by our own experience and customer feedback.
Where more than one source or crucible are suggested for particular evaporants, the choice has to be made based on the specific requirements of the customer’s application. Please inquire in case of doubt.

Important note:
Due to the great diversity of applications and system conditions, we take no responsibility for the correctness of the suggestions below.
The values in the table below are quoted from, respectively calculated on the basis of   "Karlsruher Nuklidkarte"  by  Magill, Pfennig, Galy and the IUPAG Periodic Table of Elements. We take no responsibility for the correctness of the given values. 

EvaporantMelting Point
[°C]
Temperature [°C] at vapor pressure [mbar]Crucible
materials
Recommended
sources
SymbolName10-710-510-310-1
Ag Silver 962 619 744 909 1137 PBN WEZ, PEZ
Al Aluminum 660 738 883 1076 1348 PBN WEZ, PEZ, EBV
As Arsenic 817 122 171 233 316 PBN, PG, Quartz NTEZ, VACS, DECO, TCC
Au Gold 1064 866 1027 1242 1542 PBN WEZHTEZ
B Boron 2075 1368 1619 1961 2453 PG, W, Ta HTS, HTEZ,
HTEZ-W,  EBVV
Ba Barium 727 304 394 518 698 PBN, Ta NTEZ
Be Beryllium 1287 759 902 1091 1353 PBN, BeO WEZ
Bi Bismuth 271 363 455 579 752 PBN, PG NTEZ
C Carbon 3675 1743 1972 2260 2633 - SUKO, EBVV
Ca Calcium 842 313 399 513 676 PBN NTEZ
Cd Cadmium 321 93 145 215 312 PBN, Al2O3  NTEZ
Ce Cerium 798 1041 1240 1509 1894 HTEZ-W
Co Cobalt 1495 983 1148 1364 1657 Al2O3, BeO* HTEZHTEZ-W
Cr Chromium 1907 894 1050 1253 1530 W, Al2O3, BeO HTEZ, HTEZ-WEBV
Cs Caesium 29 -2 42 101 188 AKS
Cu Copper 1085 775 922 1117 1387 PBN WEZ, PEZ
Dy Dysprosium 1412 674 808 988 1238 PG, PBN WEZ, HTEZ
Er Erbium 1529 701 844 1036 1309 PBN, W WEZ, HTEZ
Eu Europium 822 315 403 523 694 PBN NTEZ
Fe Iron 1538 939 1097 1302 1580 Al2O3, BeO* HTEZ, HTEZ-WEBV
Ga Gallium 30 669 808 995 1261 PBN WEZ, PEZ
Gd Gadolinium 1313 829 1028 1315 1763 Ta WEZHTEZ
Ge Germanium 938 870 1031 1244 1540 PBN, PG WEZ, HTS, EBV, HTEZ
Hf Hafnium 2233 1722 1989 2340 2820 EBV
Hg Mercury -39 -61 -29 14 76 HGS  
Ho Holmium 1474 702 848 1044 1323 EBV
I Iodine 114 -86 -63 -32 9
In Indium 157 532 655 823 1065 PBN WEZ, PEZ
Ir Iridium 2446 1942 2206 2533 2960 EBV
K Potassium 64 39 88 157 257 PBN NTEZ
La Lanthanum 918 1092 1285 1542 1899 W, Ta HTEZ, HTEZ-WEBVV
Li Lithium 181 257 339 453 618 PBN NTEZ
Lu Lutetium 1663 979 1167 1422 1785 W HTEZ, HTEZ-W
Mg Magnesium 650 210 279 372 502 PBN, PG NTEZTCC
Mn Manganese 1246 548 666 823 1044 PBN, PG, Al2O3 WEZNTEZ
Mo Molybdenum 2622 1687 1947 2286 2748 EBV
Na Sodium 98 116 169 239 335 PBN NTEZ
Nb Niobium 2477 1857 2111 2434 2858 EBV
Nd Neodymium 1021 789 949 1166 1477 WEZHTEZ
Ni Nickel 1455 988 1155 1373 1669 BeO HTEZ, HTEZ-WEBVV
Os Osmium 3033 2279 2567 2929 3397 EBV
P Phosphorus 44 68 106 153 213 PBN DECO, VGCS
Pb Lead 327 378 478 614 811 PBN, PG, Al2O3 WEZ, NTEZ
Pd Palladium 1555 903 1072 1298 1615 Al2O3, BeO HTEZ, HTEZ-WEBVV
Pr Praseodymium 931 858 1028 1258 1587 EBVHTEZ
Pt Platinum 1768 1374 1596 1889 2289 PG, BeO HTEZ, HTEZ-WEBVV
Rb Rubidium 39 16 62 126 219 AKS
Re Rhenium 3186 2061 2372 2778 3332 EBV
Rh Rhodium 1963 1355 1567 1843 2215 HTEZ, HTEZ-W
HTS, EBV
Ru Ruthenium 2333 1599 1854 2189 2650 EBV
S Sulfur 115 3 36 79 136 Quartz, PBN VSCS, VSS 
Sb Antimony 631 306 377 469 531 PBN NTEZ, DECOTCC
Sc Scandium 1541 831 995 1215 1529 W WEZ, HTEZHTEZ-W
Se Selenium 221 81 130 196 287 PG, PBN, Quartz NTEZTCC, VSS
Si Silicon 1414 1057 1235 1467 1784 PBN SUSI, DEZ, EBV
Sm Samarium 1074 408 505 634 815 PBN WEZ
Sn Tin 232 737 889 1095 1391 PBN, PG WEZ, PEZ
Sr Strontium 777 270 350 458 611 PBN, PG, Ta NTEZ
Ta Tantalum 3007 2070 2376 2775 3315 EBV
Tb Terbium 1356 861 1030 1259 1586 EBVHTEZ
Te Tellurium 450 179 239 318 425 PG, Al2O3, PBN  NTEZ, OMETCC
Ti Titanium 1670 1131 1318 1563 1897 Ta, W, PG HTEZ, HTEZ-W
HTS, EBV
Tl Thallium 304 315 403 522 691 PBN NTEZ
Tm Thulium 1545 500 606 747 940 PBN WEZ
V Vanadium 1910 1232 1430 1689 2040 W, Ta HTEZ-W
W Tungsten 3414 2233 2545 2947 3481 EBV
Y Yttrium 1522 888 1047 1256 1544 Al2O3, BeO* HTEZ, HTEZ-WHTS
Yb Ytterbium 819 277 360 474 636 PBN, PG NTEZ
Zn Zinc 420 149 208 287 397 Al2O3, PBN, PG NTEZ
Zr Zirconium 1854 1568 1816 2141 2586 EBV

*   Al2O3 below melting point, BeO above melting point
**   Please contact us for crucible suggestions